Alpha-2 Macroglobulin: A Novel Orthobiologic

Alpha2-Macroglobulin (α2M) is a large glycoprotein, evolutionarily conserved across both invertebrate and vertebrate lines as part of the innate immune system.1 α2M is classified as an acute phase protein, synthesized mainly by hepatocytes, but also by additional cell types, including macrophages and synoviocytes.2,3 The major function of α2M is the non-specific inhibition of all four classes of proteases4, but α2M has many diverse and complex additional functions. α2M binds and regulates the activity of a number of cytokines, binds and regulates the activity of a number of hormones, and has demonstrated regulation of genes.5 While α2M has demonstrated roles principally in fighting disease as part of the innate immune system, the same functions are the basis for utilizing α2M in the presence of inflammatory conditions of the musculoskeletal system.
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